Cellular Processes and the Genetic EnvironmentStreptococcus pyogenes is a pathog

Cellular Processes and the Genetic EnvironmentStreptococcus pyogenes is a pathogenic microorganism that can be transmitted easily from one person to another. Strep throat is one of the infections that can be caused by this pathogen. Contagious people may cough or sneeze openly leading to inhalation (respiratory transmission) of the pathogen, by sharing utensils and glasses (direct transmission), or by touching something contaminated and then touching your eyes, nose, or mouth (indirect transmission) (McCance & Huether, 2019, pg. 292).Streptococcus pyogenes receptors adhere to epithelial cells in the oropharyngeal cavity. Once colonized, invasion takes place S. pyogenes invades the cells and divides by binary fission. The invasion of the cells causes a release of cytokines to begin fighting the microorganisms. This signals lymphocytes to foreign antigens on the pathogens according to McCance and Huether (2019, pg. 200). The complement system is activated to protect the cells and destroy the invading microorganisms. There is an influx of proinflammatory cytokines that leads to erythema and edema of the insulted cells and surrounding tissues accompanied by increased neutrophils. The neutrophils are attracted to the inflammatory site, with increased cellular respiration and lysosomal enzyme activity to kill bacteria (McCance & Huether, 2019, pg. 201).Low grade fever is symptomatic of S. pyogenes. Swelling is a result of the activation of inflammatory cytokines. Exudate is excreted from the tonsils because of inflammation and an increase in plasma proteins or leukocytes according to McCance and Huether (2019, pg. 210). Prostaglandins and bradykinin may be the culprit for the severe pain with swallowing as stated by Flores and Caserta (2015) as they impact nerve endings. Cervical adenopathy is a result of swollen lymph nodes that are integral in draining local infection from the body such as with the infection of strep throat.Penicillins are the most common antibiotic treatment for strep throat. After administration of Amoxicillin for this infection, the immediate swelling of tongue and lips (angioedema) and bronchospasm with wheezing is an allergic reaction as noted by Patterson and Stankewicz (2021). The molecules involve in the allergic response of Penicillin functions as a hapten, meaning it must bind to larger molecule proteins that act as carriers in the blood, to incite an allergic response (McCance & Huether, 2019, pg. 225).There is ongoing research in the field of genomics that begs to find substantial support for underlying reasons for recurrent strep throat. I could find no current supportive documentation in the literature. If true, this would be a characteristic that could impact my response.References Flores, A. R., & Caserta, M. T. (2015). Pharyngitis. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978145574801300059X?via=ihubMcCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). Mosby.Patterson, R. A., & Stankewicz, H. A. (2021). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459320/
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